How Sow Lameness Contributes to Sow Mortality
In the last five years, sow mortality has been on the rise. Five years ago, the average sow mortality rate was around 5-7 percent, but it has climbed to around 10-12 percent today. Variation around the average sow mortality rate is very high as there are some swine operations that still operate with a rate of around 3-4 percent annually, while others are around 15-16 percent.
Sow lameness is the second leading cause of sow mortality and is responsible for around 25 percent of the sow mortality rate, according to the Iowa Pork Industry Center at Iowa State University. Sow lameness is multifactorial and results from many different causative agents. Injury, certain pathogens, and claw lesions all contribute to sow lameness. Claw lesions negatively impact foot integrity and may cause inflammation leading to pain or secondary infection.
What is causing the increase in sow lameness? Many contributing factors are behind the increase in sow lameness. Group housing requires the gilts or sows to move more to access feed and water; this results in an increase in the frequency and severity of swine claw lesions. When a sow becomes lame, she tends to have lower feed intake, decreased reproductive performance and, ultimately, exit early from the herd. Another contributing factor is gilt selection. The U.S. pork industry has been in the midst of expansion, which has resulted in a situation where gilts that may not have the ideal skeletal conformation are being placed in production. This lack of skeletal conformation may be contributing to the incidence of lameness in gilts and young sows. Claw lesions are commonly found on 15 to 40 percent of developing gilts, and inflammatory claw lesions cause pain and stress, directly impacting the performance of the sow and its longevity.
Using Performance Trace Minerals in Sow Nutrition Programs to Manage Sow Lameness
Managing sow lameness in terms of sow mortality starts with good gilt selection, while adding performance trace minerals like Zinpro® Availa®Sow into the swine nutrition program has shown a reduced frequency and severity of swine claw lesions.
In a study conducted at the University of Minnesota, 119 crossbred sows were observed over two parities in individual gestation stalls. Sixty-two were supplemented with inorganic trace minerals, and 57 were supplemented with Availa-Sow along with inorganic trace minerals. Claw lesions were measured using the Zinpro® Feet First® and were measured at mid-gestation in two consecutive parities.
Feeding Availa-Sow resulted in a 15-percent reduction in hind limb lesions and a 36-percent reduction in sole lesions. Sows fed Availa-Sow also tended to have fewer total lesions (13-percent reduction) and fewer lateral claw lesions (14.2-percent reduction). Overall, feeding Availa-Sow resulted in a 16.5-percent reduction in sow lameness.
When performance trace mineral nutrition is used in combination with effective group housing management strategies, the number of sows removed from the herd due to lameness can be reduced.
Feet First Swine Lameness Prevention Program Helps Manage Sow Lameness
The Zinpro Feet First Swine Lameness Prevention Program focuses on swine wellness and helping improve the efficiency of pork production through the identification and prevention of lameness. Resources available through the Feet First Program include a locomotion scoring system, claw lesion identification tips and claw trimming fundamentals.